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  • About the botanical continents

    To help a viewer understand where the territories are located on the world map, coming up with colorblind-friendly continent markers.

    It’s enough to look at a Roman number next to the territory name to see which continent the territory is located on.

    Noting that on Google Maps Ronne Ice Shelf in Antarctica is designated as water, but the Ross Ice Shelf is shown as land.

    This means that Antarctica surface area was calculated incorrectly. On many other online maps it is perfectly clear that both Ronne and Ross Ice Shelves are not designated as land.

    Updating the data, rerunning all calculations, projecting on a sphere and unfolding.

    Before:
    After:

    Antarctica lost 531 591 km2, the poster now has 143 804 549 km2 of land and 366 261 073 km2 of water.

    Now we just need to decide on the classification of regions.

    Creators of geographic charts, tables and catalogs classify regions geopolitically, biogeographically and by many other parameters. The designer and the editor can spend an eternity trying to navigate this plethora of classifications without reaching a consensus. To reach an agreement and to have some confidence in how things will turn out biologically and geopolitically in the future, it would be great to tie our data to some standard. Of all the examples mentioned above, the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions seems the most appropriate.

    The scheme’s article on Wikipedia has a very detailed and graphic description, down to the single pixel of land surface. It would be a shame not to count them. However, the scheme isn’t so great for tables with state names since some of the countries in the scheme belong to two continents simultaneously. Russia for example takes 3 711 866 km² of land surface in Europe and 2 728 760 km² in Asia-Temperate.

    I — Europe; II — Africa; III — Asia-Temperate; IV — Asia-Tropical; V — Australasia; VI — Pacific; VII — Northern America; VIII — Southern America; IX — Antarctica

    Europe — 9 479 843 km²

    Russia (in Europe)3 711 866
    Ukraine 555 891
    France 543 119
    Spain 494 005
    Sweden 410 151
    Germany 351 127
    Poland 305 817
    Norway 303 569
    Finland 300 856
    Italy 296 404
    United Kingdom (UK) 240 512
    Romania 234 155
    Belarus 204 018
    Greece 130 051
    Bulgaria 109 781
    Iceland 100 002
    Hungary 91 176
    Portugal 87 700
    Austria 82 815
    Czech Republic 77 914
    Serbia 76 474
    Ireland 68 196
    Lithuania 63 289
    Latvia 62 910
    Svalbard and Jan Mayen (Norway) 61 347
    Croatia 55 626
    Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 750
    Slovakia 48 438
    Estonia 42 896
    Denmark 42 189
    Switzerland 39 636
    Netherlands 33 987
    Belgium 30 289
    Moldova 30 135
    Albania 27 946
    Republic of Macedonia 24 818
    Turkey (in Europe) 23 303
    Slovenia 20 114
    Montenegro 13 554
    Kaliningrad Oblast (Russia) 13 267
    Republic of Kosovo 10 846
    Transnistria 3 198
    Luxembourg 2 576
    Faroe Islands (Denmark) 1 370
    Isle of Man (UK) 566
    Andorra 464
    Malta 308
    Liechtenstein 157
    Jersey (UK) 119
    Guernsey (UK) 77
    San Marino 61
    Gibraltar (UK) 6
    Monaco 2
    Vatican City0,5
    Sealand0,001

    Africa — 29 613 628 km²

    Algeria2 307 828
    Democratic Republic of the Congo2 297 964
    Sudan1 847 033
    Libya1 617 231
    Chad1 261 030
    Mali1 252 873
    Angola1 252 826
    South Africa1 205 842
    Niger1 180 389
    Ethiopia1 125 017
    Mauritania1 040 813
    Egypt (in Africa) 933 963
    Nigeria 903 935
    Tanzania 886 072
    Namibia 818 802
    Mozambique 776 766
    Zambia 740 302
    South Sudan 645 764
    Somalia 637 018
    Central African Republic 622 985
    Madagascar 590 266
    Kenya 577 324
    Botswana 560 877
    Cameroon 464 047
    Morocco 411 687
    Zimbabwe 387 835
    Republic of the Congo 342 134
    Cote d'Ivoire 320 525
    Burkina Faso 273 715
    Western Sahara 270 055
    Gabon 261 945
    Guinea 245 903
    Ghana 233 153
    Uganda 204 164
    Senegal 196 032
    Tunisia 148 117
    Eritrea 121 049
    Benin 115 693
    Liberia 96 073
    Malawi 94 080
    Sierra Leone 72 218
    Togo 56 592
    Guinea-Bissau 33 422
    Lesotho 30 548
    Equatorial Guinea 26 968
    Burundi 25 043
    Rwanda 23 922
    Djibouti 21 514
    Swaziland 17 326
    Gambia 10 446
    Canary Islands (Spain) 7 403
    Cape Verde 4 028
    Yemen (in Africa) 3 754
    Reunion (France) 2 497
    Azores (Portugal) 2 287
    Mauritius 1 990
    Comoros 1 657
    Sao Tome and Principe 998
    Madeira (Portugal) 789
    Seychelles 440
    Mayotte (France) 382
    Saint Helena (UK) 122
    Ascension Island (UK) 96
    Europa Island (France) 21
    Ceuta (Spain) 20
    Melilla (Spain) 12
    Juan de Nova Island (France) 5
    Glorioso Islands (France) 4
    Tromelin Island (France)1

    Asia-Temperate — 34 801 745 km²

    Russia (in Asia-Temperate)12 728 760
    China9 258 246
    Kazakhstan2 653 464
    Saudi Arabia1 931 076
    Iran1 611 758
    Mongolia1 538 959
    Turkey (in Asia-Temperate) 741 535
    Afghanistan 637 016
    Turkmenistan 462 439
    Yemen (in Asia-Temperate) 450 723
    Uzbekistan 434 311
    Iraq 428 441
    Japan 367 693
    Oman 309 104
    Kyrgyzstan 189 537
    Syria 184 841
    Tajikistan 138 809
    КНДР 120 252
    South Korea 98 913
    Jordan 88 925
    Azerbaijan 84 186
    United Arab Emirates 71 398
    Egypt (in Asia-Temperate) 60 668
    Georgia 56 611
    Taiwan 35 521
    Armenia 28 315
    Israel 21 522
    Kuwait 17 352
    Qatar 11 591
    Lebanon 10 217
    Abkhazia 8 638
    Palestine 6 025
    Republic of Cyprus 5 499
    South Ossetia 3 848
    Northern Cyprus 3 453
    Hong Kong 1 066
    Bahrain 757
    Akrotiri and Dhekelia (UK) 248
    Macau 30

    Asia-Tropical — 9 253 809 km²

    India3 095 999
    Indonesia1 884 046
    Pakistan 845 440
    Myanmar 663 006
    Thailand 510 383
    Papua New Guinea 461 681
    Vietnam 323 811
    Philippines 293 431
    Laos 228 428
    East Malaysia 197 016
    Cambodia 177 847
    Nepal 146 905
    Bangladesh 133 891
    West Malaysia 130 548
    Sri Lanka 64 701
    Bhutan 39 939
    Solomon Islands (in Asia-Tropical) 27 443
    East Timor 14 696
    Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) 7 771
    Brunei Darussalam 5 863
    Singapore 678
    Christmas Island (Australia) 133
    Maldives 87
    British Indian Ocean Territory (UK) 45
    Cocos Islands (Australia) 12
    Spratly Islands (Brunei, China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam) 6
    Paracel Islands (China, Taiwan, Vietnan) 4

    Australasia — 7 856 123 km²

    Australia7 592 594
    New Zealand 263 493
    Norfolk Island (Australia) 36

    Pacific — 78 191 km²

    Fiji 18 723
    New Caledonia (France) 18 516
    Hawaii (USA) 16 667
    Vanuatu 12 076
    French Polynesia (France) 3 516
    Samoa 2 834
    Solomon Islands (in Pacific) 860
    Tonga 659
    Federated States of Micronesia 654
    Guam (USA) 539
    Line Islands (Kiribati) 489
    Northern Mariana Islands (USA) 462
    Palau 442
    Gilbert Islands (Kiribati) 284
    Cook Islands (New Zealand) 284
    Niue (New Zealand) 261
    Marshall Islands 210
    American Samoa (USA) 197
    Easter Island (Chile) 182
    Wallis and Futuna (France) 139
    Pitcairn Islands (UK) 49
    Tokelau (New Zealand) 41
    Phoenix Islands (Kiribati) 33
    Nauru 21
    Tuvalu 20
    Wake Island (USA) 9
    Banaba Island (Kiribati) 6
    Midway Atoll (USA) 5
    Jarvis Island (USA) 4
    Clipperton Island (France) 3
    Palmyra Atoll (USA) 3
    Howland Island (USA) 2
    Baker Island (USA) 1
    Johnston Atoll (USA) 1
    Kure Atoll (USA)0,9
    Kingman Reef (USA)0,002

    Northern America 22 079 727 km²

    Canada8 908 366
    United States of America7 654 643
    Greenland (Denmark)2 135 337
    Mexico1 943 749
    State of Alaska (USA)1 437 415
    Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France) 217

    Southern America 18 248 040 km²

    Brazil8 399 858
    Argentina2 712 060
    Peru1 283 402
    Colombia1 126 743
    Bolivia1 076 320
    Venezuela 904 426
    Chile 741 401
    Paraguay 396 919
    Ecuador 247 880
    Guyana 210 918
    Uruguay 173 865
    Suriname 144 767
    Nicaragua 119 187
    Honduras 111 675
    Cuba 110 160
    Guatemala 108 262
    French Guiana (France) 83 677
    Panama 74 517
    Costa Rica 51 128
    Dominican Republic 47 768
    Haiti 26 810
    Belize 21 807
    El Salvador 20 399
    Bahamas 12 272
    Jamaica 10 971
    Puerto Rico (USA) 8 881
    Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) 8 019
    Trinidad and Tobago 5 135
    Guadeloupe (France) 1 625
    Martinique (France) 1 110
    Turks and Caicos Islands (UK) 885
    Dominica 748
    Saint Lucia 603
    Barbados 434
    Antigua and Barbuda 421
    Curacao (Netherlands) 418
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 382
    Grenada 352
    US Virgin Islands (USA) 335
    Bonaire (Netherlands) 268
    Cayman Islands (UK) 258
    Saint Kitts and Nevis 258
    Aruba (Netherlands) 175
    British Virgin Islands (UK) 139
    Montserrat (UK) 100
    Anguilla (UK) 77
    Bermuda (UK) 50
    Saint Martin (French) 46
    San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina (Colombia) 46
    Sint Maarten (Netherlands) 31
    Sint Eustatius (Netherlands) 20
    Saint Barthelemy (France) 18
    Saba (Netherlands) 12
    Navassa Island (USA) 4

    Antarctica 12 393 443 km²

    Antarctica12 369 609
    Falkland Islands (UK) 11 785
    Kerguelen Islands (France) 6 978
    South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (UK) 3 628
    Heard Island and McDonald Islands (Australia) 344
    Crozet Islands (France) 338
    Prince Edward Islands (South Africa ) 329
    Tristan da Cunha (UK) 176
    Macquarie Island (Australia) 121
    Bouvet Island (Norway) 73
    Amsterdam Island (France) 53
    Saint-Paul Island (France) 10

    We also need to note that WGSRPD was developed for biologists and everybody gets a bit bored when it talks about Asia-Temperate, Asia-Tropical or Australasia. In the course of further examination of geoschemes we found out that the time-tested List of Countries and Codes in the Useful Stuff section of the studio’s website matches the United Nations geoscheme.


    I — Europe; II — Africa; III — Asia; IV — Oceania; V — North America; VI — South America; VII — Antarctica

    Europe — 22 298 366 km²

    Russia16 523 291
    Ukraine558 031
    France539 416
    Spain495 397
    Sweden412 314
    Germany352 555
    Poland312 722
    Norway305 211
    Finland302 498
    Italy297 320
    United Kingdom (UK)241 571
    Romania234 966
    Belarus204 905
    Greece130 398
    Bulgaria110 122
    Iceland100 555
    Hungary91 506
    Portugal87 941
    Austria83 118
    Czech Republic78 219
    Serbia76 724
    Ireland68 490
    Lithuania63 577
    Latvia63 207
    Svalbard and Jan Mayen (Norway)61 745
    Croatia55 814
    Bosnia and Herzegovina50 916
    Slovakia48 622
    Estonia43 107
    Denmark42 384
    Switzerland39 778
    Netherlands34 130
    Belgium30 411
    Moldova30 244
    Albania28 027
    Republic of Macedonia24 891
    Slovenia20 184
    Montenegro13 596
    Kaliningrad Oblast (Russia)13 326
    Kosovo10 880
    Canary Islands (Spain)7414
    Luxembourg2586
    Azores (Portugal)2293
    Faroe Islands (Denmark)1378
    Madeira (Portugal)790
    Isle of Man (UK)568
    Andorra465
    Malta309
    Liechtenstein158
    Jersey (UK)120
    Guernsey (UK)78
    San Marino61
    Ceuta (Spain)20
    Melilla (Spain)12
    Gibraltar (UK)6
    Monaco2
    Vatican City0,5
    Sealand0,001

    Africa — 29 679 701 km²

    Algeria2 311 284 
    Democratic Republic of the Congo2 298 093 
    Sudan1 848 010 
    Libya1 619 483 
    Chad1 261 656 
    Mali1 253 642 
    Angola1 253 229 
    South Africa1 207 747 
    Niger1 181 112 
    Ethiopia1 125 202 
    Mauritania1 041 661 
    Egypt995 966 
    Nigeria904 112 
    Tanzania886 158 
    Namibia819 591 
    Mozambique777 243 
    Zambia740 579 
    South Sudan645 839 
    Somalia637 081 
    Central African Republic623 043 
    Madagascar591 278 
    Kenya577 330 
    Botswana561 420 
    Cameroon464 083 
    Morocco412 458 
    Zimbabwe388 113 
    Republic of the Congo342 139 
    Cote d'Ivoire320 564 
    Burkina Faso273 799 
    Western Sahara270 371 
    Gabon261 946 
    Guinea245 957 
    Ghana233 184 
    Uganda204 166 
    Senegal196 113 
    Tunisia148 430 
    Eritrea121 106 
    Benin115 716 
    Liberia96 081 
    Malawi94 115 
    Sierra Leone72 229 
    Togo56 600 
    Guinea-Bissau33 431 
    Lesotho30 598 
    Equatorial Guinea26 968 
    Burundi25 043 
    Rwanda23 923 
    Djibouti21 520 
    Swaziland17 349 
    Gambia10 450 
    Cape Verde4031 
    Reunion (France)2499 
    Mauritius2057 
    Comoros1657 
    Sao Tome and Principe998 
    Seychelles440 
    Mayotte (France)382 
    Tristan da Cunha (UK)176 
    Saint Helena (UK)122 
    Ascension Island (UK)96 
    Europa Island (France)21 
    Juan de Nova Island (France)5 
    Glorioso Islands (France)3 
    Tromelin Island (France)1

    Asia — 30 866 977 km²

    China9 279 961
    India3 107 011
    Kazakhstan2 663 315
    Saudi Arabia1 940 611
    Indonesia1 884 107
    Iran1 614 889
    Mongolia1 544 445
    Pakistan846 859
    Turkey766 879
    Myanmar663 594
    Afghanistan638 342
    Thailand510625
    Turkmenistan463 674
    Yemen454 707
    Uzbekistan435 604
    Iraq429 297
    Japan368 605
    Vietnam316 653
    Oman309 362
    Philippines293 519
    Laos228 584
    East Malaysia197 072
    Kyrgyzstan190 095
    Syria185 250
    Cambodia177 905
    Tajikistan139 171
    Bangladesh134 038
    West Malaysia130 553
    Nepal123 246
    North Korea120 588
    Jordan112 966
    South Korea99 147
    Azerbaijan84 423
    United Arab Emirates71 477
    Sri Lanka64 708
    Georgia56 782
    Bhutan39 996
    Taiwan35 560
    Armenia28 394
    Israel21 562
    Kuwait17 380
    East Timor14 698
    Qatar11 606
    Lebanon10 239
    Abkhazia8665
    Palestine6036
    Brunei Darussalam5863
    Republic of Cyprus5511
    South Ossetia3860
    Northern Cyprus3461
    Transnistria3209
    Hong Kong1067
    Bahrain758
    Singapore678
    Akrotiri and Dhekelia (UK)248
    Maldives87
    Macau30
    Spratly Islands (Brunei, China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam)6

    Oceania — 8 433 731 km²

    Australia7 602 329
    Papua New Guinea461 724
    New Zealand264 276
    Solomon Islands28 307
    Fiji18 734
    New Caledonia (France)18 466
    Hawaii (USA)16 680
    Vanuatu11 514
    French Polynesia (France)3518
    Samoa2835
    Tonga659
    Federated States of Micronesia655
    Guam (USA)539
    Line Islands (Kiribati)489
    Northern Mariana Islands (USA)462
    Palau442
    Gilbert Islands (Kiribati)284
    Cook Islands (New Zealand)284
    Niue (New Zealand)261
    Marshall Islands210
    American Samoa (USA)197
    Easter Island (Chile)183
    Wallis and Futuna (France)139
    Christmas Island (Australia)133
    Macquarie Island (Australia)122
    Pitcairn Islands (UK)49
    British Indian Ocean Territory (UK)45
    Tokelau (New Zealand)41
    Norfolk Island (Australia)36
    Phoenix Islands (Kiribati)33
    Nauru21
    Tuvalu20
    Cocos Islands (Australia)12
    Wake Island (USA)9
    Banaba (Kiribati)6
    Midway Atoll (USA)5
    Jarvis Island (USA)4
    Palmyra Atoll (USA)3
    Howland (USA)2
    Baker (USA)1
    Johnston Atoll (USA)1
    Kure Atoll (USA)1
    Kingman Reef0,002

    North America — 22 904 475 km²

    Canada8 851 148
    United States of America7 675 122
    Greenland (Denmark)2 108 634
    Mexico1 945 932
    State of Alaska (USA)1 585 264
    Nicaragua119 227
    Honduras111 724
    Cuba110 261
    Guatemala108 315
    Panama74 528
    Costa Rica51 138
    Dominican Republic47 802
    Haiti26 829
    Belize21 820
    El Salvador20 406
    The Bahamas12 286
    Jamaica10 978
    Puerto Rico (USA)8886
    Trinidad and Tobago5137
    Guadeloupe (France)1626
    Martinique (France)1111
    Turks and Caicos Islands (UK)886
    Dominica748
    Saint Lucia603
    Barbados434
    Antigua and Barbuda422
    Curacao (Netherlands)419
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines382
    Grenada352
    US Virgin Islands (USA)336
    Bonaire (Netherlands)269
    Cayman Islands (UK)259
    Saint Kitts and Nevis258
    Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France)218
    Aruba (Netherlands)175
    British Virgin Islands (UK)139
    Montserrat (UK)100
    Anguilla (UK)77
    Bermuda (UK)50
    Saint Martin (French)46
    San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina (Colombia)46
    Saint Martin (France)31
    Sint Eustatius (Netherlands)20
    Saint Barthelemy (France)18
    Saba (Netherlands)12
    Navassa Island (USA)4
    Clipperton Island (France)2

    South America — 17 534 537 km²

    BrazilBrazil
    Argentina2 718 051
    Peru1 283 667
    Colombia1 126 802
    Bolivia1 122 444
    Venezuela904 531
    Chile743 189
    Paraguay397 335
    Ecuador247 882
    Guyana210 929
    Uruguay174 208
    Suriname144 772
    French Guiana (France)83 680
    Falkland Islands (UK)11 834
    Galapagos Islands (Ecuador)8019

    Antarctica — 12 381 361 km²

    Antarctica12 369 609
    Kerguelen Islands (France) 6 978
    South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (UK) 3 628
    Heard Island and McDonald Islands (Australia) 344
    Crozet Islands (France) 338
    Prince Edward Islands (South Africa) 329
    Bouvet Island (Norway) 73
    Amsterdam Island (France) 53
    Saint-Paul Island (France) 10

    Finalizing the poster and testing the web application.